Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Religion Or Mythology In Greek Culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Religion Or Mythology In Greek Culture - Essay Example There are two main types of myths in Greek culture; the divine myths that deals with the gods, their origins as well as actions, and heroic myths that are based on human actions. From these myths, one can affirm that Greeks valued life. They also believed in living their life to the fullest since they disregarded death as part of life (Sailors 7). Greeks also value specific people in the society. This is evidenced by their carving of imperishable legends that did magnificent things while they were alive. In other words, they carved their legends as one way of pursuing fame. In connection with this, it is apparent that some of the Greek myths influenced the lifestyle of youths. The myths were models of human excellence, and as a result of this, Greek youths emulates them. Greeks greatly admire strength, beauty as well as intelligence. The value of these elements is evidenced by their myth that grants men the power of measuring all things. In tandem with this, it is the nature of the G reeks to have a man deciding on almost all things in life. In conclusion, religion and mythology play a significant role in the Greek society. Religion enabled Greeks to communicate their experiences despite being made up of different religious practices. Apart from acting as self-representation of the Greek community, Greek religion served as a unifying factor. Greek myths show that Greeks valued life as well as specific people in the society. The involvement of religion in everything done in Greece led to the unification of the Greek’s religious culture.

Monday, February 3, 2020

Respons Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Respons - Essay Example I agree with the author because using phone while walking is dangerous as it distracts a person from external environment and causes accidents and even death. Many a times, people underestimate the negative consequences of using a cell phone while walking or driving. For instance, last week while I was walking along the side way, I saw a young man talking on the phone and crossing the road. In a second, I could here is scream as he was hit by a car and injured his leg. Here Matt Ritchell is right in focusing on multi – tasking while on phone as it is a very dangerous act. The use of cell- phone can have many adverse effect including legal penalties .It is seen that many times children use cell phone at schools which can get them punishment. Last month, one of my neighbor’s kid was thrown out of class due the use of cell phone during class hours. Even at work, excessive use of cell phone can result in harmful consequences. Few days back my friend’s brother was fired from work due to his excessive texting at work. In the article â€Å"Behavior: Imitation of Film: Heres Smoking at You, Kid† Nicholas Bakalar claims of the imitation of smoking behavior in children due to watching smoking in movies. Generally children have a high tendency to imitate, and smoking is the most easily imitated behavior from movies. According to a study conducted with 6522 children nationwide it was revealed that children exposed to smoking in movies had two and half times chance to start smoking. I agree with the author here as it is a proven fact that children exposed to smoking through movies have a high tendency to end up as smokers in future. It is usually observed that parents and government authorities ignore the effect of smoking in movies on young children. When last time I visited movies, I have noticed bunch of young children smoking outside the theatre.It could be that these children were regular visitor to

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Privacy Supportive Geo-Location Search Software

Privacy Supportive Geo-Location Search Software Devika BV 1 Introduction 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this document is to present a detailed description of the Locating Service Similarity with Privacy using queries. It will explain the purpose and features of the system, the interfaces of the system, what the system will do, the constraints under which it must operate and how the system will react to external stimuli. 1.2 Document Conventions 1.3 Product Scope This web application is chosen for an academic study and implementation. Location-based applications utilize the positioning capabilities of a mobile device to determine the current location of a user, and customize query results to include neighboring points of interests. However, location knowledge is often perceived as personal information. One of the immediate issues hindering the wide acceptance of location-based applications is the lack of appropriate methodologies that offer fine grain privacy controls to a user without vastly affecting the usability of the service. In specific, the following are the contributions towards this project. A novel architecture for LBS applications that is directed towards revealing privacy/utility trade-offs to a user before an actual geo-tagged query is made. A proof-of-concept design for a privacy-supportive local search location based search. 1.4 References Exploiting Service Similarity for Privacy in Location Based Search Queries Qin Liu, Guojun Rinku Dewri, Member, IEEE, and Ramakrisha Thurimella IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS VOL:25 NO:2 YEAR 2014 â€Å"Supporting Anonymous Location Queries in Mobile Environments with Privacy Grid,†in Proceedings of the 17th International World Wide Web Conference,2008, pp. 237–246. B. Bamba, L. Liu, P. Pesti, and T. Wang 2. Overall Description This section will give an overview of the whole system. The system will be explained in its context to show how the system interacts with other systems and introduce the basic functionality of it. It will also describe what type of stakeholders that will use the system and what functionality is available for each type. At last, the constraints and assumptions for the system will be presented. 2.1 Product Perspective To begin with, this is a very dynamic concept. Usability has a twofold meaning a) privacy controls should be intuitive yet flexible, and b) the intended purpose of an application is reasonably maintained It is worth mentioning that a separate line of research in analyzing anonymous location traces has revealed that user locations are heavily correlated, and knowing a few frequently visited locations can easily identify the user behind a certain trace. The privacy breach in these cases occurs because the location to identity mapping results in a violation of user anonymity. The system attempts to prevent the reverse mapping—from user identity to user location—albeit in a user-controllable manner. 2.2 Product Functions Mobile search is an evolving branch of information retrieval services that is centered on the convergence of mobile platforms and mobile phones, or that it can be used to tell information about something and other mobile devices. Web search engine ability in a mobile form allows users to find mobile content on websites which are available to mobile devices on mobile networks. The first module is to build a mobile search engine with ranking based approach to retrieve results with respect to the localized position of the user. Geo-tagging is a function, where devices can insert metadata with geographical information (coordinates) into a file such as photo, associating it with the geographic location it was taken at. In response to this first query phase, the user obtains a service-similarity profile. This profile is a representation of the similarities in the query output at different geographic locations. The exact form taken by this profile, as well as the data structures employed in computing this profile, may vary from application to application. A location movement engine on the user side then determines a noisy location to use based on the user’s privacy profile and the retrieved service-similarity profile. What is private and what is not private should be actually defined before the query has been raised, this helps the result set not to include those details that are private to the user and thus it would not be shared by the application. The service-contour inferencing is not just a collection of positions, but includes additional information about the businesses located at those positions such as names, addresses, categories, subcategories. Additionally, some specific values such as feedback score, the entire profile of the entity with personal information, so on and forth. The following could be the modules for this project: Login/Register module Search results by ranking module Similarity profiler service module Service-contour inferencing module 2.3 User Classes and Characteristics The user is expected to be Internet literate and be able to register/login and know how to search for information from the system. The user is expected to know how to provide information. The interface, however, provides easy access to all these, nonetheless, the user needs to know the basics to operate and get the best results. The user is expected to be Windows literate and to be able to use button, pull-down menus, and similar tools. There are two types of users who can interact with the system: 1. The registered users who will get access to information of the businesses for a specific location; 2. The business owners who may receive personal information regarding the user at a specific location. 2.4 Operating Environment The following Hardware configuration is expected to smoothly execute the project. Processor Pentium V or above Speed 2.1 GHz or above RAM 1 GB RAM Hard Disk 60 GB Key Board Standard Windows Keyboard Mouse Two or Three Button Mouse Monitor SVGA The following Software configuration is expected to smoothly execute the project. Operating System : Window 7 or above Language : C# (.NET Language) Front End : Visual Studio 2010 Database : SQL Server/Express Web Server :Internet Information Server (IIS 6.0) 2.5 Design and Implementation Constraints Since the application searches data from the database server, it is crucial that there is a good bandwidth/good system resource for the application to function. Data-base search can be laborious when we have larger-data to be executed. 2.6 Assumptions and Dependencies One assumption about the emulator product is that it will be always be used with internet connection, since it has to collect information about a random user moving from the API’s. It is also assumed that the internet connection is stable during these transactions. If not high, a moderate speed is required to operate with the system. Another assumption is that since the API’s are third-party services, this could go down or may not work as expected at times. However, it is assumed that the down-time may not be longer enough to disrupt the working of our emulators. 2.7 System Environment 3. External Interface Requirements This section provides a detailed description of all inputs into and outputs from the system. It also gives a description of the hardware, software and communication interfaces and provides basic prototypes of the user interface. 3.1 User Interfaces A first-time user of the mobile application should see the log-in page when user opens the application. If the user has not registered, they should be able to do that on the log-in page. Refer to Fig. 2. If the user is not a first-time user, they should be able to see the latitude and longitude information where the user is current located, see Figure 3. On selecting the user destination, the random movement is simulated and reported by the system. Fig. 2. Login Screen Fig. 3. Current Location Fig. 4. Random User Movement 3.2 Hardware Interfaces No external hardware devices are expected to be used in this project. A system with Windows Operating System running on it should be fine to run the web application. 3.3 Software Interfaces Windows Operating System (OS) XP or 7.0, SQL Server/Express will be used for the database storage. Multiple API’s and JavaScript’s would be used in this project. There may be some usage of the web services (as applicable). 3.4 Communications Interfaces The communication between the different parts of the system is important since they depend on each other. However, in what way the communication is achieved is not important for the system and is therefore handled by the underlying operating systems and the database for both the cloud and the web application. 4. System Features 4.1 Login/Registration Module The user should be able to register or login (if already a member) from the mobile emulator. The login/register module helps the user to locate his geo location and will be able to view the businesses/services surrounding the user. The system will also ensure that the privacy details of the user are shared only what is made â€Å"Public† or â€Å"Private† by the user. Modifications to this sensitive information are provided to the user by the system. 4.2 Search results by ranking module In general, a local search application provides information on local businesses, events, and/or friends, weighted by the location of the query issuer. Location and service accuracy trade-offs are clearly present in a local search LBS. A privacy-supportive variant is therefore well-suited for this application class. Local search results tend to cycle through periods of plateaus and minor changes as one moves away from a specified location. The plateaus provide avenues for relaxation in the location accuracy without affecting service accuracy, while the minor changes allow one to assess accuracy in a continuous manner. Given a search term (e.g. generic ones such as â€Å"cafes†, and targeted ones such as â€Å"starbucks coffee†) and a highly generalized user location (e.g. the metropolitan city), the privacy-supportive LBS generates a concise representation of the variation in the 10-nearest neighbor result set as a hypothetical user moves across the large metropolitan area. Once the representation is communicated to the user, he/she can infer the geographic variability that can be introduced in her location coordinates to retrieve all or a subset of the result set. 4.3 Similarity profiler service module This profile is a representation of the similarities in the query output at different geographic locations. The exact form taken by this profile, as well as the data structures employed in computing this profile, may vary from application to application. A location perturbation engine on the user side then determines a noisy location to use based on the user’s privacy profile and the retrieved service-similarity profile. The LBS processes the query with respect to the noisy location. 4.4 Service-contour inferencing module The result set from the query is not simply a collection of positions, but includes additional attributes about the businesses located at those positions. This could range from names, addresses, categories, subcategories, to specifics such as value, feedback scores, and entire profiles of individuals with personal information. The ranking function is often a well-guarded business secret on how these attributes are combined. Another approach is to send a set of similarity matrices to the user, one each corresponding to a specific co-ordinate in the grid. The approach requires the computation and transfer of an inordinate amount of information. 5. Other Nonfunctional Requirements 5.1 Performance Requirements The requirements in this section provide a detailed specification of the user interaction with the web application software and measurements placed on the system performance. The system on which this client application runs should have installed .NET framework 2. The following software(s) must be installed for smooth implementation of the project. Visual Studio 2012 IIS Web Server/Service SQL Server database Browser application such as Internet Explorer / Mozilla / Google Chrome Windows Mobile Emulator Windows operating system with wired or wireless internet connection 5.2 Safety Requirements All care should be taken to ensure that at any point there is no compromise on the safety requirement during the process of building/executing this project. At this time, there is none that needs serious consideration. 5.3 Security Requirements Database should be password-protected. The system should allow access to users only with a login credentials.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Compare and Contrast of a Two Grand Theories Essay

Virginia Henderson (1897-1996) is a Nursing Grand Theorist who was often referred to as the â€Å"first lady of nursing.† In the article by Nicely (2011) it depicts how she developed a nursing model which is based on activities of daily living. She believed that nursing as a profession stood separately from medicine. In this article, I was able to decipher how Henderson’s theory is applied to the specialized area of organ donation for transplantation. It is reflected that although organ coordinators are from different backgrounds such as: allied health professions, physicians’ assistants, and paramedics, most of them are â€Å"registered nurses.† Nicely (2011) portrays 14 different activities that Henderson identified for patient assistance which would allow patients to return back to independence: â€Å"eating and drinking, elimination of body waste, desirable posture/sleep and rest, select suitable clothing: dress and undress, avoiding dangers in the en vironment and avoid injuring others, maintaining body temperature within normal range, grooming/protecting the integument, communication with others, worship according to one’s faith, play and recreation, learn and discover† (Nicely, 2011, p.73). Henderson’s activities reflect on how nurses can provide a good foundation in which they can become more proficient in their abilities to provide care for their patients. She stressed the importance for including the patient’s family. In her theory, Henderson states the â€Å"the complexity and quality of the service is limited only by the imagination and the competence of the nurse who interprets it† (Nicely, 2011, p. 77). The article extrapolates very good points about how equally important it is for the nurse to work with the family, as well as the patient. The second article I chose by Merritt and Procter is entitled, â€Å"Conceptualizing the functional role of mental health consultation liaison nurse in multi-morbidity,† using Peplau’s theory. This article surmises the role of the mental health consultation liaison (MHCLN) and how it can be integrated to Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal Relations. In the introduction of the article, it focuses on the importance of â€Å"mentally ill† patients being involved actively in their treatment and care planning. This article describes that â€Å"it is a global consensus that mental health care should be undertaken  collaboratively, no matter where the patients live, and in the least restrictive environment† (World Psychiatric Association, 2009, p.159). I agree with the above statement, as I work as a mental health consultant and psychiatric nurse. There is not enough being done to help the patients and their families in seeking psychiatric care and providing a continuum of care. It continues to be a â€Å"stigma† that needs to be addressed globally, so that the patients who are in utmost need of care are able to receive it. This includes medication, behavioral management, and psychotherapy by specialists in the field. Throughout my many years of practice in the mental health field, I have witnessed so much neglect instilled on the mentally ill patients. Many facilities have closed down, and in particular one research facility called the â€Å"Lafayette Clinic† which was linked to Wayne State University in MI, closed due to the government not prioritizing mental health in their budget. As a result, there are more homeless residents living on the streets and not being treated for their mental illness until something hap pens. At times, people who are living on the streets become loud, argumentative, and combative, hallucinate, injure someone, or themselves before any action is taken. I firmly believe in the stand of the MHCLN in helping to decrease the stigma of mental illness, as well as reducing patient’s symptoms by providing a â€Å"means† for treatment. Education and research are a â€Å"key source†, as well as funding for the above to happen. Merritt’s paper represents a stepping stone in my opinion to many patients that are out there suffering and being belittled by their mental illness. The use of Peplau’s interpersonal relations theory if placed fully into practice can help patients adjust to their mental illness, and through education they would be able to have somewhat of a grasp on their illness, the importance of taking their medications, and seeing a psychiatrist and/or psychologist on a regular basis. Once stabilized, the mental health patient can reap the benefits of engaging in a more normalized lifestyle and have a better chance of adjusting to the roles that are not always able to participate in. This paper provides good insight into Peplau’s interpersonal relations theory. The methodologies utilized provide patients with an avenue to work through their psychological distress, and adjustment to changes that occur as a result of their illness. More research and education is necessary to provide the interventions that are  necessary in stabilizing the patients who suffer from mental illness. The nurse is of key importance in facilitating this process with the patient and their families, as well as the psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker, recreational therapist, and mental health worker. In comparing Henderson’s article to Peplau’s article there is some correlation as to the importance in working with families, as well as the patient who is also â€Å"stressed†. In Nicely’s article, the donor patient is usually deceased, or if not deceased, the nurse works with both the patient and the family. Henderson’s theory allows the nurse to be patient as well as family focused. In Merritt’s article, it is both important for the nurse to work with the patient and family as well. In both articles, I feel that the â€Å"nurse† serves as an â€Å"advocate† in different ways, one from a medical perspective, and the other from a psychological perspective, however these can be intertwined as the families who lost a loved one due to â€Å"brain death† and a transplantation will occur, also need emotional support. Nurse-patient relationship encompasses many strategies throughout both articles. In Peplau’s psychodynamic nursing theory four phases of a nurse-patient relationship are identified: orientation, identification, exploitation, and resolution. By utilizing these phases, it will allow a nurse to better identify, respond to patient’s need, and build trust. Both articles stress the importance of â€Å"nurses† in different types of roles, one as an â€Å"organ donation coordinator†, and the other as a  "mental health liaison or consultant† providing psychological and emotional support to families. References: Merritt, M. K. & Procter, N. (2010). Conceptualizing the functional role of mental health consultation-liaison nurse in multi-morbidity, using Peplau’s nursing theory. Contemporary Nurse 34(2). 158-166. https://lmscontent.embanet.com/MVU/NURS600/Readings/W3_Peplau.pdf Nicely, B., & DeLario, G. T. (2011). Virginia Henderson’s principles and practice of nursing applied to organ donation after brain death. Progress in transplantation, 21(1), 72-77. https://lmscontent.embanet.com/MVU/NURS600/Readings/W3_Nicely2011.pdf

Friday, January 10, 2020

Immune System and Page Ref

Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 9e (Marieb) Chapter 12 The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses Short Answer Figure 12. 1 Using Figure 12. 1, identify the following: 1) A lymph capillary is indicated by letter __________. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 404 2) A lymph node is indicated by letter __________. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 404 3) The lymph duct is indicated by lettter __________. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 404 4) Blood capillaries are indicated by letter __________. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 404 5) Lymphatic collecting vessels are indicated by letter __________. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 404 1 Figure 12. Using Figure 12. 2, identify the following: 6) The spleen is indicated by letter __________. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 407 7) The tonsils are indicated by letter __________. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 407 8) The thymus gland is indicated by letter __________. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 407 9) The Peyer's patches are indicated by letter __________. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 407 10) The lymphoid organ that destroys worn-out blood cells is indicated by letter __________. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 407 2 11) The lymphoid tissues that trap and remove bacteria that enter the throat are indicated by letter __________.Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 407-408 Fill in the blank or provide a short answer:12) Lymph fluid and some plasma proteins originate (escape) from the _________ _. Answer: blood plasma Diff: 2 Page Ref: 403-40413) Excess accumulations of fluid, which impair the exchange of materials within the tissues, is called __________. Answer: edema Diff: 2 Page Ref: 40314) The fibrous capsule of lymph nodes contains strands called __________ that divide the node into compartments. Answer: trabeculae Diff: 3 Page Ref: 40615) Lymph exits the lymph node via the __________ vessels. Answer: efferent lymphatic Diff: 2Page Ref: 40616) The role of the __________ in the lymphatic system is to remove worn -out blood cells and return some of the products to the liver. Answer: spleen Diff: 2 Page Ref: 40717) Peyer's patches and the tonsils are part of the collection of small lymphoid tissues that p rotect the upper respiratory and digestive tracts from infection and are referred to as __________. Answer: MALT (mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue) Diff: 3 Page Ref: 40818) Harmful or disease-causing microorganisms from which nonspecific defenses protect the body are called __________. Answer: pathogens Diff: 1 Page Ref: 40919) The process by which WBCs and phagocytes migrate to an area experiencing acute inflammation is called __________. Answer: chemotaxis Diff: 3 Page Ref: 41120) The process by which neutrophils squeeze through capillary walls is called __________. Answer: diapedesis Diff: 2 Page Ref: 412 321) The binding of complement proteins to certain sugar or proteins on a foreign cell's surf ace is called __________. Answer: complement fixation Diff: 3 Page Ref: 41322) One effect of complement fixation that causes the cell membranes of foreign cells to become sticky so that they are easier to phagocytize is called __________.Answer: opsonization Diff: 3 Page Ref: 41323) C ells studded with protein molecules found on our own cells that do not trigger an immune response within us (but may within others) are called __________. Answer: self-antigens (autoantigens) Diff: 1 Page Ref: 41624) Troublesome small molecules or incomplete antigens that may mount an attack that is harmful rather than protective are called __________. Answer: haptens Diff: 3 Page Ref: 41625) When an antigen binds to B cell surface receptors, it becomes sensitized (activated) and undergoes __________. Answer: clonal selection Diff: 3 Page Ref: 41826) When B cells encounter antigens and produce antibodies against them, we exhibit __________. Answer: active immunity Diff: 2 Page Ref: 42027) Antibodies constitute an important part of blood proteins and are also referred to as __________. Answer: immunoglobulins Diff: 2 Page Ref: 42128) The five major immunoglobulin classes are __________. Answer: IgM, IgA, IdD, IgG, IgE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 42229) The binding of antibodies to specific sit es on bacterial exotoxins or viruses is called __________. Answer: neutralization Diff: 2 Page Ref: 42430) The clumping of foreign cells, a type of antigen-antibody reaction, is called __________.Answer: agglutination Diff: 2 Page Ref: 42431) Killer T cells, which kill virus-invaded body cells, are also called __________. Answer: cytotoxic T cells Diff: 3 Page Ref: 425 432) Antigens that produce abnormally vigorous immune responses whereby the immune system causes tissue damage as it fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless are called __________. Answer: allergens or hypersensitivities Diff: 2 Page Ref: 43033) Systemic (bodywide) acute allergic response caused by allergens that directly enter the blood, as with certain bee stings or spider bites, is called __________.Answer: anaphylactic shock Diff: 2 Page Ref: 43034) AIDS cripples the immune system by interfering with the activity of cells called __________. Answer: helper T cells Diff: 2 Page Ref: 43135) A tr opical disease that results when parasitic worms clog the lymphatic vessels is called __________. Answer: elephantiasis Diff: 2 Page Ref: 431Multiple Choice1) The fluid that is forced out of the capillary beds by hydrostatic and osmotic pressures and into the tissue spaces is called: A) arterial blood B) venous blood C) plasma D) interstitial fluid E) lymph Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: 403-4042) Lymph flows: A) in a circular pattern within the tissues B) away from the heart only C) toward the heart only D) both toward and away from the heart E) into the capillaries Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4043) Lymph from the left arm would return to the heart through the: A) inferior vena cava B) thoracic duct C) right lymphatic duct D) left subclavian artery E) aorta Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 404; 406 54) Which one of the following is NOT a mechanism that aids lymph return: A) milking action of skeletal muscles B) pressure changes within the thorax C) the pumping action of the heart D) smooth muscle contractions within the lymphatic vessels E) presence of valves within the larger lymph vessels Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4045) Which one of the following is NOT true of lymph nodes: A) they remove foreign materials from the lymph fluid B) they have valves similar to those found in veins C) they contain lymphocytes D) they act as filters along the lymphatic vessels E) they contain macrophages Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 405-4066) Which lymphatic organ's major job is to destroy worn-out red blood cells and return some of the products to the liver: A) tonsils B) spleen C) thymus gland D) tonsils E) Peyer's patches Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 407 ) Which lymphoid tissues trap and remove bacteria entering the throat: A) axillary lymph nodes B) cervical lymph nodes C) tonsils D) Peyer's patches E) thymus gland Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4088) Which one of the following is NOT a type of lymphoid organ: A) spleen B) thymus gland C) tonsils D) appendix E) Peyer's patches Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 407-408 69) The lymph organ that programs T cells and functions at peak levels only during youth is the: A) thymus B) spleen C) appendix D) tonsils E) Peyer's patches Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 40810) The lymph tissues found within the walls of the small intestine are called: A) tonsils B) appendix C) Peyer's patches D) thymus tissues E) intestinal nodes Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 40811) Which of these lymphoid organs is found along the left side of the abdominal cavity: A) spleen B) Peyer's patches C) thymus gland D) tonsils E) axillary lymph nodes Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 40712) Musoca-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) includes: A) spleen B) thymus gland C) tonsils only D) tonsils and Peyer's patches E) tonsils and spleen Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 40813) The body's first line of defense against the invasion of disease -causing microorganisms is: A) phagocytes B) natural killer cells C) skin and mucous membranes D) inflammatory response E) fever Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 409 714) Compared to the nonspecific chemicals that cover body surfaces and mucous membranes, the specific body defense system is: A) faster B) slower C) the same speed D) sometimes faster and sometimes slower E) not comparable in speed Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 40915) Which one of the following is NOT one of the nonspecific body defenses: A) intact skin B) antibody production C) the inflammatory response D) fever E) natural killer cells Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 409-41516) The process by which neutrophils are squeezed through the capillary wall s during the inflammatory process is called: A) agglutination B) chemotaxis C) diapedesis D) coagulation E) antibody production Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 41217) Which one of the following is NOT one of the four most common indic ators of the inflammatory response: A) redness B) heat C) swelling D) fever E) pain Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 410-41218) The migration of phagocytes and white blood cells to an inflamed ar ea along a chemical gradient is called: A) diapedesis B) chemotaxis C) immunity D) perforins E) complement fixationAnswer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 411 819) The inflammatory process begins with release of chemicals, which do all of the following EXCEPT: A) dilate blood vessels B) attract phagocytes to the area C) stimulate release of lysozyme D) cause capillaries to become leaky E) activate pain receptors Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 411-41220) Tissues invaded by viruses, which attempt to replicate themselves by taking over cellular machinery, secrete small proteins called __________ to protect nearby cells and hinder further multiplication of the viruses. A) histamine B) interferon C) kinins D) interleukins E) pyrogens Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 413; 41521) The body's temperature-regulating â€Å"thermostat† that can be reset upward in response to pyrogens is located in the: A) hypothalamus B) thalamus C) pineal gland D) cerebellum E) medulla oblongata Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 41522) Fever has the effect of doing all of the following EXCEPT: A) denaturing (scrambling) proteins B) stimulating the liver and spleen to gather up iron and zinc C) increasing metabolic rate of tissue cells D) stimulating complement fixation E) speeding up repair processes Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 41523) The study of immunity is called: A) histology B) anatomy C) pathology D) immunology E) microbiology Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 415 924) Which of the following substances is NOT typically perceived as an antigen: A) pollen grains B) bacteria C) self-antigens D) fungi E) virus particles Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 41625) Which one of the following CANNOT be said about the history of immunity: A) the ancient Greeks knew something existed within the body to protect it from infectious disease B) scientists of the 1800s discovered â€Å"factors† now called antibodies C) scientists of the 1800s demonstrated that immune serum could protect another animal from diseaseD) scient ists of the mid-1900s discovered the viral origin of AIDS E) scientists of the mid-1900s discovered that injection of serum containing antibodies did NOT always protect a recipient from disease Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 41526) Regardless of whether it matures into a B cell or a T cell, a lymphocyte that is capable of responding to a specific antigen by binding to it is said to be: A) clonal B) incompetent C) immune D) immunocompetent E) complemented Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 41627) The specific foreign substances that an individual's immune system has the ability to recognize and resist is determined by: A) individual exposure to the specific foreign substance B) individual genetic makeup C) the total number of lymphocytes present at a given time D) the total number of macrophages at a given time E) the total number of self-antigens at a given time Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 41728) Which one of the following is NOT true of macrophages: A) they are considered the â€Å"big eate rs† of the immune system B) they engulf foreign particles C) they circulate continuously throughout the body D) they act as antigen presenters E) they secrete monokines Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 418 1029) B cells develop immunocompetence in the: A) thymus gland B) bone marrow C) spleen D) thyroid gland E) lymph nodes Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 41730) The specific type of acquired immunity that a fetus obtains from maternal antibodies that cross the placenta is called: A) naturally acquired active immunity B) naturally acquired passive immunity C) artificially acquired active immunity D) artificially acquired passive immunity E) artificially acquired natural immunity Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 42031) What specific type of acquired immunity do vaccines provide: A) naturally acquired active immunity B) naturally acquired passive immunity C) artificially acquired active immunity D) artificially acquired passive immunity E) naturally acquired artificial immunity Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 42032) Vaccines are NOT for: A) pneumonia B) tetanus C) measles D) snake bites E) polio Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 42033) Immune sera are used for all of the following EXCEPT: A) tuberculosis B) rabies C) snake bites D) botulism E) tetanus Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 421 1134) Which one of the following is NOT true of basic antibody structure: A) they consist of four amino acid chains B) they are linked together by disulfide bonds C) the heavy chains are identicalD) the heavy chains are about 400 amino acids long E) the light chains are often of differing lengths Answer: E Diff: 3 Page Ref: 421-42235) Which one of the following is NOT true of the constant (C) regions of antibodies: A) they are the same or nearly the same B) they form the â€Å"stem† of an antibody C) they determine the specific type of antibody class formed D) they form an antigen-binding site E) they determine how an antibody class will carry out its immune role Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 4223 6) Which one of the following is NOT one of the antibody classes: A) IgA B) IgB C) IgD D) IgG E) IgE Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 42237) IgA: A) is mainly found in mucus and secretions such as tears and saliva B) is passed from mother to fetus during pregnancy C) is the most abundant antibody in blood plasma D) can fix complement E) is involved in allergies Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 42338) Which one of the following is NOT a method by which antibodies inactivate antigen s: A) agglutination B) chemotaxis C) complement fixation D) neutralization E) precipitation Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 423-424 1239) The specific antibody class that has the ability to cross the placental barrier and provide immunity to the fetus is: A) IgM B) IgA C) IgD D) IgG E) IgE Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 422-42340) The process by which antibodies bind to specific sites on bacterial exotoxins (toxic chemicals secreted by bacteria) to block their harmful effects is called: A) agglutination B) chemotaxis C) co mplement fixation D) neutralization E) precipitation Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 42441) Antigen presentation is essential for the activation and clonal selection of: A) T cells B) B cells C) plasma cell D) antigen-presenting cells E) antibodies Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 42542) An isograft is a tissue graft donated by: A) an unrelated person B) a parent C) a different animal species D) the same person E) an identical twin Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 42743) Which one of the following is NOT a type of immunosuppressive therapy given after surgery to prevent rejection of a graft: A) corticosteroids B) radiation C) antiproliferative drugs D) gamma globulin E) immunosuppressive drugs Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 429 1344) With immediate hypersensitivy, the antibody class that binds to mast cells and basophils that trigger the release of histamine and other chemicals is: A) IgM B) IgA C) IgD D) IgG E) IgE Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 422-42345) Allergic contact dermatitis following skin co ntact with poison ivy would normally lead to: A) immediate hypersensitivity B) acute hypersensitivity C) delayed hypersensitivity D) anaphylactic shock E) immunodeficiency Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 43146) The relatively common autoimmune disease in which the thyroid gland produces excessive amounts of thyroxine is called: A) multiple sclerosis B) Graves' disease C) myasthenia gravis D) glomerulonephritis E) systemic lupus erythematosis Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 42947) Which one of the following is NOT an autoimmune disease: A) AIDS B) multiple sclerosisÃ'‚C) Graves' disease D) type I diabetes mellitus E) rheumatoid arthritis Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 429True/False1) The flaplike minivalves of the lymph capillaries act like one -way swinging doors that allow lymph fluid to enter the lymph capillaries but not exit. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4042) The daughter cells of B cells, called plasma cells, release antibodies. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 418 143) Lymph in the ri ght arm is returned to the heart via the right lymphatic duct. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4044) The thymus gland, found around the trachea, programs certain lymphocytes. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4085) The tonsils, spleen, thymus gland, and Peyer's patches are referred to as mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT). Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4086) Natural killers are unique phagocytic defense cells that can kill cancer cells and virus infected body cells well before the immune system i s activated. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4107) Some pathologists consider limitation of joint movement to be an additional fifth cardinal sign of inflammation. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4128) The final disposal of cell debris as inflammation subsides is performed by neutrophils. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 4129) The nonspecific defense by which complement proteins attach to sugars or proteins on the surface of foreign cells is called complement fixation. Answer: TRUE Diff : 1 Page Ref: 41310) Chemicals secreted by white blood cells and macrophages exposed to foreign substances that can increase body temperature are called pyrogens. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 41511) Fever is a systemic response triggered by pyrogens. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 41512) Like all blood cells, lymphocytes originate from hemocytoblasts contained within red bone marrow. Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 41613) Macrophages arise from monoctyes formed within the bone marrow. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 418 1514) Extremely weakened pathogens that are still alive are attenuated. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 42015) Artificially acquired passive immunity is conferred when o ne receives immune serum for poisonous snake bites. Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 42116) Antibodies are also referred to as immunoglobulins. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 42117) There are three major immunoglobulin classes: IgM, IgA , and IgD. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 42218) The antibody a mo ther passes to her fetus is IgM. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 422-42319) The process that occurs when antibodies clump foreign cells is called agglutination. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 42420) Memory cells are descendants of an activated B or T cell. Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 42721) An antibody is a substance capable of provoking an immune response. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 41622) Tissue grafts harvested from an unrelated person are called xenografts. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 42723) Allografts are tissue grafts taken from an unrelated person. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 42724) Allergies, or hypersensitivities, are normal immune responses. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 43025) Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system loses its ability to tolerate self antigens while still recognizing and attaching foreign antigens. Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 429 1626) Our immune system can be affected by severe stress. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 435 Matchi ng Match the following descriptions with the appropriate lymphoid organ or tissue:1) Located on the left side of the A) thymus gland abdominal cavity Diff: 1 Page Ref: 407 B) spleen2) Trap and remove bacteria and pathogens entering the throat Diff: 2 Page Ref: 408 C) Peyer's patches D) tonsils3) Located overlying the heart Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4084) Filters and cleanses the blood of bacteria, viruses, and other debris Diff: 2 Page Ref: 407-4085) Located in the wall of the small intestines Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4086) Located in the pharynx (throat) Diff: 1 1) B Page Ref: 408 2) D 3) A 4) B 17 5) C 6) D Match the following protective mechanism with its associated element:7) Traps microorganisms in A) nasal hairs respiratory and digestive tracts Diff: 1 Page Ref: 409 B) mucus C) acid mantle8) Inhibits growth of bacteria and fungi in female reproductive tract Diff: 1 Page Ref: 409 E) keratin ) Contains lysozyme Diff: 2 D) lacrimal secretions F) cilia Page Ref: 409 G) gastric juice10) Provides resistance against acids, alkalis, and bacterial enzymes Diff: 1 Page Ref: 40911) Filters and traps microorganisms within inhaled air Diff: 1 Page Ref: 40912) Contains concentrated hydrochloric acid and protein-digested enzymes that destroy pathogens within the stomach Diff: 1 Page Ref: 40913) Propels debris-laden mucus away from lower respiratory passages Diff: 1 7) B 13) F Page Ref: 409 8) C 9) D 10) E 18 11) A 12) G Match the following biological function with its antibody class:14) Believed to be cell surface A) IgD receptor of immunocompetent B cell Diff: 3 Page Ref: 422-423 B) IgG C) IgA15) First immunoglobulin class released to plasma by plasma cells during primary response Diff: 3 Page Ref: 422-423 D) IgM E) IgE16) Main antibody of primary and secondary responses Diff: 3 Page Ref: 422-42317) Bathes and protects mucosal surfaces from attachment of pathogens Diff: 3 Page Ref: 422-42318) Triggers the release of histamine Diff: 3 Page Ref: 422-42319) Potent agglutinating agent D iff: 3 Page Ref: 422-42320) Crosses placenta and provides passive immunity to fetus Diff: 3 14) A 20) B Page Ref: 422-423 15) D 6) B 17) C 18) E 19) DEssay1) Explain the origin and pathway of lymph. Answer: Lymph fluid arises from blood plasma that has been forced out of the capillary beds by osmotic and hydrostatic pressures. The fluid left behind is called interstitial fluid. The interstitial fluid is then picked up by lymph capillaries, after which it is called lymph. Lymph is routed up the lymphatic vessels until it is finally returned to the venous system through either the right lymphatic duct or the thoracic duct. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 403-404 192) Describe the methods the body uses to help return lymph to the heart.Answer: The return of lymph to the heart is aided by: 1. the milking action of the skeletal muscles, 2. pressure changes in the thorax during brea thing, 3. smooth muscles in the walls of the larger lymphatics contract rhythmically. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 404-4053) Describ e several of the protective chemicals produced by the skin and mucous membranes. Answer: Skin produces acid secretions that inhibit bacterial growth, and sebum contains chemicals that are toxic to bacteria. Vaginal secretions are highly acidic. The stomach mucosa secretes hydrochloric acid and protein-digesting enzymes, both of which can kill pathogens. Saliva and tears contain lysozyme, an enzyme that destroys bacteria. Mucus is a sticky mucous membrane secretion that traps microorganisms. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4094) Identify the four most common indicators and major symptoms of an acute inflammatory response and explain their origins. Answer: The four most common indicators of the inflammatory response are redness, heat, swelling, and pain. Redness and heat are a result of dilation of blood vessels that increase blood flow to the injured area. Swelling occurs when increa sed permeability of the capillaries allows plasma to leak from the bloodstream into the tissue spaces. The excess f luid, or edema, triggers the activation of pain receptors in the area, accounting for the pain associated with an injury. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 410-4125) List and describe the cells and chemicals the body uses as its second line of defense. Answer: 1. Phagocytes, such as neutrophils or macrophages, engulf foreign particles. These cells are in nearly every body organ and confront pathoge ns that make it through the surface membrane barriers. 2. Natural killer cells, found in blood and lymph, are lymphocytes. They can lyse and kill cancer cells and virus-infected body cells. 3. The inflammatory response is a nonspecific response that occurs when body tissues are injured. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 409-4116) Describe the four major types of transplant grafts. Answer: Autografts are tissue grafts transplanted from one site to another within the same person. Isografts are tissue grafts harves ted from a genetically identical person (identical twin). Allografts are tissue grafts harvested from an unre lated person. Xenografts are tissue grafts harvested from different animal species. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4277) Explain three current theories that attempt to explain why self-tolerance breaks down in autoimmune disorders.Answer: Inefficient lymphocyte programming is one theory that suggests self-reactive B or T cells escape to the rest of the body. Another theory is that self -proteins appear within the circulation that were not previously exposed to the immune system, thus initiating an immune response. These â€Å"hidden† antigens are found in sperm cells, the eye lens, and thyroid proteins. Another theory is that antibodies produced against fore ign antigens cross-react with self-antigens such as when streptococcal bacteria crossreact with heart antigens causing rheumatic fever. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 429 20

Thursday, January 2, 2020

American History Fighting for the Freedom of Choice

Abortions being made illegal in the late 1880’s created a lot of â€Å"underground† abortion procedures. The abortions performed were not safe, they were expensive, and often time’s male doctors would force women to have intimate relations with them before the procedure. In the 1950s, about a million illegal abortions a year were performed in the U.S., and over a thousand of those women died each year as a result. It wasn’t until the civil rights and antiwar movements in the 1960’s that women began to fight more actively for their rights. One of these rights was the freedom to do as they wish with their bodies. By fighting for the freedom of choice, women were also fighting for a safe medical procedure that would abort their pregnancy with a lower death rate. Then, On January 22, 1973, the U.S. Supreme Court, stated that the ``right of privacy instituted in the Fourteenth Amendments concept of personal liberty is broad enough to include a womans decision whether or not to end her pregnancy. As you can see on the chart below, the number of legal abortions increased greatly with every passing year. After abortions became legalized, women felt more independent and safe. However, public opinions were not banned and women were meant to feel ashamed for choosing to terminate their pregnancy. Opinions were forced onto the public from religious groups and other affiliations. Abortion numbers skyrocketed in the early 1990’s after the public warmed up to the idea that the freedom ofShow MoreRelatedAmerican History: Native Americans 829 Words   |  3 PagesHave you ever wondered what it would be like to be Native American during the European invasion? In American history Native Americans were treated unfairly. The American government mis treated the Natives by lying to them and treating them as foreigners. After years of fighting for freedom the Natives did not achieve their goal for freedom. The Trail of Tears, being the most tragic event in American history, was due to the Removal Act in the 1830s, the misguidance of President Andrew Jackson, theRead MoreAmeric The Free, Land Of The Brave936 Words   |  4 Pagesland to the modern American we strive for the freedoms, liberties, and wealth we have. Foreigners from every part of the world come to this country for a fresh start, a new life, a better life. They fulfill their dreams, gain wealth, and have a better life. there is always that one question, how to become an American. Is it really just getting a green card, living here for three years, and passing a few tests? Sure get you re citizenship to America, but are they truly an American? As of 2012, 14 percentRead MoreWhy The Colonists Become American After The Revolution?1348 Words   |  6 Pagescontroversy over when the British colonists become American. Is it before the American Revolution? During the American? Or after the American Revolution? Besides these questions there are also questions regarding what an American is and when it comes to the Civil War who were the Americans? In the case we will look at events in history and three books to get a better understanding and come to a conclusion. In my opinion the colonists become American after the Revolution. I specifically believe it isRead MoreAnalysis Of The Phrase I Am Not An American Essay759 Words   |  4 PagesTwain wrote the phrase I AM NOT AN AMERICAN; I AM THE AMERICAN in a notebook that he took with him on his European travels during 1897. Over time as many hear the quote has become more and more popular. To me it’s not really surprising but it is catchy. Some may wonder was Mark Twain truly an American in our minds. What is truly being American? People minds of modern patriotism Twain could be called un-American. I can also argue there was times when Mark Twain gave service for his country.Read MoreAmeric Land Of The Free, And Home1411 Words   |  6 Pagescore values of America change as time goes by. Even though Americans often value individualism, patriotism, nationalism, and individual liberty, history has proven otherwise. Wars, social norms, rights restrictions, expectations and peer pressure have gotten in the way of the values that many believed highlighted America. The saying, ‘history repeats itself’ has haunted the future of America greatly. As the years go by, individual freedom is minimized, and citizens are slowly conned into the conformistRead MoreThe American National Anthem By Francis Scott1075 Words   |  5 Pagesbrilliance of the survival of the American Flag upon Fort McHenry. Francis Scott Key composed, â€Å"Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight†¦ were so gallantly streaming† (â€Å"The Star-Spangled Banner†). This symbolism of the strength of the American Flag, reflected upon in Keys’ lyrics, became the National Anthem a century later (Klein); and is still respectively sung today. The American National Anthem provokes images of glory, pride, family, and the American Dream in the minds of thoseRead MoreThe American Revolution Revolutionary Revolution1329 Words   |  6 Pagesthe American Revolution was fought over liberty and freedom. It was a movement marked by action which upset the political order of the eighteenth century. However, if all the American Revolution achieved was breaking the yoke of empirical control its lasting importance would have been lost amongst the scores of colonial revolutions that came before it, such as the Dutch’s break from the Spanish or the Corsicans overthrow of the Genoese. 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The first part is through the â€Å"hierarchic difference† between African-Americans and Europeans, which was established years ago and is the simplest feature of the development. Basically, it is the established belief of Europea ns’ academic dominance over that of Africans, and the view of Africans as ignorant and savage beast,Read MorePresident Kennedy Of The United States1245 Words   |  5 Pagesspeeches in U.S. HISTORY. John F. Kennedy now President Kennedy of the United States of America stepped up to the podium ready to address the nation as the youngest ever to be elected. He came into office at height of the Cold War, and the one thing on people s minds was the fear of a nuclear war occurring and communism spreading. As he addressed the nation he successfully reassured Americans that they made the right choice in electing him, emphasized his determination to work for freedom and human rights

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Is College Ranking Necessary - 1468 Words

â€Å"Is college ranking necessary?† College ranking is necessary to many people due to different reasons. True as that may be, I also have a diverse opinion. It is undoubtedly true that college education is an investment; whereby the student together with their parents spent money, time and energy for four years with the intention that this ‘intellectual’ investment would be profitable. It is because of this, therefore, that people take huge interest in knowing where the college stacks up in comparison to the other colleges; therefore making the college ranking useful. Many parents and students solemnly depend on the information and ideas from the ranking sources in making decisions on the type of college they want together with the career choices in those colleges (J. Scott Armstrong and Tad Sperry 1994). It is because of this keen interest by the parents and students on the college rankings that there have been different parties conducting surveys and making rankings based on different criteria. There are different resources that are available and which they are used in ranking colleges in terms of the alumni success rates, the education value provided, the test scores among others. These rankings for a long time have had the tendencies of convincing students and their parents that certain institutions which are given better rankings are, and would always, be better than the others. 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Class rankings are a vital component of high schools, and eradicating them would be detrimental to both colleges and students in many ways. Class rankings provide colleges with data needed for evaluating applicants. Some colleges have a plethoraRead MoreAnalysis Of Freeland s Effect On The University1364 Words   |  6 Pagesideal university for students to further study. How to make profit (Business model) The creation of value For NU, the most crucial part for the creation of value would be to provide an ideal campus environment and quality school resource, which are necessary for NU to increase students’ enrollment. It takes funds for NU to improve the school facility and resource. Delivering value The improvement made in campus environment and school resource would thus help NU increase the students’ enrollment. 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